Overview

In this doc, we'll walk you through the setup required to transfer tokens between token contracts you've deployed to extdev and Rinkeby. If you haven't done so already you should first read through the high-level overview of the Transfer Gateway.

1. Deploy token contracts to extdev

If you wish to transfer tokens from a token contract deployed on Rinkeby to one that's deployed on extdev, you'll need to ensure that the token contract you deploy to extdev implements the mintToGateway function. We've created some sample contracts and a simple CLI to interact with them.

MyToken ERC721 contract

pragma solidity ^0.4.24;

import "openzeppelin-solidity/contracts/token/ERC721/ERC721Token.sol";

contract MyToken is ERC721Token {
    // Transfer Gateway contract address
    address public gateway;

    constructor(address _gateway) ERC721Token("MyToken", "MTC") public {
        gateway = _gateway;
    }

    // Used by the DAppChain Gateway to mint tokens that have been deposited to the Ethereum Gateway
    function mintToGateway(uint256 _uid) public
    {
        require(msg.sender == gateway, "only the gateway is allowed to mint");
        _mint(gateway, _uid);
    }
}

MyCoin ERC20 contract

pragma solidity ^0.4.24;

import "openzeppelin-solidity/contracts/token/ERC20/StandardToken.sol";

contract MyCoin is StandardToken {
    // Transfer Gateway contract address
    address public gateway;

    string public name = "MyCoin";
    string public symbol = "MCC";
    uint8 public decimals = 18;

    constructor(address _gateway) public {
        gateway = _gateway;
        totalSupply_ = 0;
    }

    // Used by the DAppChain Gateway to mint tokens that have been deposited to the Ethereum Gateway
    function mintToGateway(uint256 _amount) public {
        require(msg.sender == gateway, "only the gateway is allowed to mint");
        totalSupply_ = totalSupply_.add(_amount);
        balances[gateway] = balances[gateway].add(_amount);
    }
}

Full source for all contracts can be found in the Truffle DAppChain Example repo.

  1. Download the loom binary, while you won't be spinning up your own DAppChain in this tutorial, you will be using some of the CLI commands built into the loom binary to interact with the extdev PlasmaChain.

    curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/loomnetwork/loom-sdk-documentation/master/scripts/get_loom.sh | sh
    # set LOOM_BIN to reference the downloaded loom binary,
    # makes it easy to invoke it from anywhere
    export LOOM_BIN=`pwd`/loom
    
  2. Make sure you have node (v8 or later) and yarn installed.

  3. Clone the Truffle DAppChain Example repo.

    # clone the tutorial repo to the gateway-tutorial directory
    git clone https://github.com/loomnetwork/truffle-dappchain-example gateway-tutorial
    cd gateway-tutorial
    # install dependencies
    yarn
    
  4. Generate your own private key for deploying and calling contracts on the extdev PlasmaChain.

    $LOOM_BIN genkey -k extdev_private_key -a extdev_public_key
    

    You should see something similar to this displayed in the console:

    local address: 0x3B334bEd1e7d3e7d9214495120160D9236aCbC31
    local address base64: OzNL7R59Pn2SFElRIBYNkjasvDE=
    

    This is the public address that corresponds to your new private key. You'll find the private key in the extdev_private_key file, and the corresponding public key in the extdev_public_key file.

  5. Deploy the MyToken and MyCoin contracts to the extdev PlasmaChain.

    yarn deploy:extdev
    

2. Deploy token contracts to Rinkeby

There aren't any special requirements for token contracts deployed to Ethereum networks.

MyRinkebyToken ERC721 contract

pragma solidity ^0.4.24;

import "openzeppelin-solidity/contracts/token/ERC721/ERC721Token.sol";

contract MyRinkebyToken is ERC721Token {
    constructor() ERC721Token("MyRinkebyToken", "MRT") public {
    }

    function mint(uint256 _uid) public
    {
        _mint(msg.sender, _uid);
    }

    // Convenience function to get around crappy function overload limitations in Web3
    function depositToGateway(address _gateway, uint256 _uid) public {
        safeTransferFrom(msg.sender, _gateway, _uid);
    }
}

MyRinkebyCoin ERC20 contract

pragma solidity ^0.4.24;

import "openzeppelin-solidity/contracts/token/ERC20/StandardToken.sol";

contract MyRinkebyCoin is StandardToken {
    string public name = "MyRinkebyCoin";
    string public symbol = "MRC";
    uint8 public decimals = 18;

    // one billion in initial supply
    uint256 public constant INITIAL_SUPPLY = 1000000000;

    constructor() public {
        totalSupply_ = INITIAL_SUPPLY * (10 ** uint256(decimals));
        balances[msg.sender] = totalSupply_;
    }
}

Full source for all contracts can be found in the Truffle DAppChain Example repo.

Let's deploy these contracts to Rinkeby.

  1. Generate an Ethereum private key:

    # this will create the rinkeby_account, rinkeby_mnemonic, and rinkeby_private_key files
    yarn gen:rinkeby-key
    
  2. Get the address of the new Rinkeby account from the rinkeby_account file:

    cat rinkeby_account
    
  3. Give the Rinkeby account some ETH so it can be used to deploy contracts to Rinkeby. You can either use https://faucet.rinkeby.io or transfer some ETH from another account.

  4. Set your Infura API key (get it from https://infura.io):

    export INFURA_API_KEY=XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
    
  5. Deploy the sample contracts:

    yarn deploy:rinkeby
    

    If this fails with an error similar to this one:

    Error encountered, bailing. Network state unknown. Review successful transactions manually.
    insufficient funds for gas * price + value
    

    Transfer a bit more ETH to your Rinkeby account.

3. Map extdev contracts to Rinkeby contracts

Once you've deployed your contracts to both chains you'll need to let the Transfer Gateway know you want it to transfer tokens between the contracts. You can either do so programmatically using the TransferGateway class in loom-js, or the loom CLI. For this tutorial we've built a more streamlined JS CLI with web3 and loom-js, so you don't have to go looking for contract addresses, transaction hashes, and sacrificial goats.

Map the MyToken contract deployed on extdev to the MyRinkebyToken contract deployed on Rinkeby:

node ./gateway-cli.js map-contracts token

Map the MyCoin contract deployed on extdev to the MyRinkebyCoin contract deployed on Rinkeby:

node ./gateway-cli.js map-contracts coin

After you execute these commands the Transfer Gateway will attempt to verify that you are the creator of these contracts. Note that this may take a couple of minutes. In the meantime, you can proceed to the next step.

4. Map extdev account to Rinkeby account

Now that the two token contracts are connected via the Transfer Gateway you can start transferring tokens from extdev to Rinkeby. However, if you want to transfer tokens from Rinkeby to extdev, you'll need to connect your extdev account to your Rinkeby account.

node ./gateway-cli.js map-accounts

Great, everything should now be ready for flawless token transfer between extdev and Rinkeby!

5. Token transfer

From Rinkeby to extdev

Now that all contracts and accounts have been mapped you can transfer tokens and ETH to the Rinkeby Gateway contract.

Let's start by minting some of the MyRinkebyToken ERC721 tokens, and transferring one of them to the PlasmaChain:

# mint some tokens on Rinkeby
node ./gateway-cli.js mint-token 1
node ./gateway-cli.js mint-token 2
node ./gateway-cli.js mint-token 3

# transfer a token to extdev PlasmaChain
node ./gateway-cli.js deposit-token 1

# check how many tokens you have on Rinkeby
node ./gateway-cli.js token-balance -c eth

# check how many tokens you have on extdev
node ./gateway-cli.js token-balance

# check how many tokens the Gateway holds on Rinkeby
node ./gateway-cli.js token-balance -a gateway -c eth

And now let's transfer some of the MyRinkebyCoin ERC20 tokens. Note that a billion of them have already been minted to your account so you can transfer them right away.

# transfer 120 tokens to extdev PlasmaChain
node ./gateway-cli.js deposit-coin 120

# check how many tokens you have on Rinkeby
node ./gateway-cli.js coin-balance -c eth

# check how many tokens you have on extdev
node ./gateway-cli.js coin-balance

# check how many tokens the Gateway holds on Rinkeby
node ./gateway-cli.js coin-balance -a gateway -c eth

From extdev to Rinkeby

The ERC721 tokens can be transferred back to Rinkeby using the withdraw-token command:

# transfer a token to Rinkeby
node ./gateway-cli.js withdraw-token 1

# check how many tokens you have on Rinkeby
node ./gateway-cli.js token-balance -c eth

# check how many tokens you have on extdev
node ./gateway-cli.js token-balance

# check how many tokens the Gateway holds on Rinkeby
node ./gateway-cli.js token-balance -a gateway -c eth

The ERC20 tokens can be transferred back to Rinkeby using the withdraw-coin command:

# transfer 60 tokens to Rinkeby
node ./gateway-cli.js withdraw-coin 60

# check how many tokens you have on Rinkeby
node ./gateway-cli.js coin-balance -c eth

# check how many tokens you have on extdev
node ./gateway-cli.js coin-balance

# check how many tokens the Gateway holds on Rinkeby
node ./gateway-cli.js coin-balance -a gateway -c eth

Troubleshooting

Sometimes the withdrawal process may error out due to network issues or because gas ran out. If that happens, you can try to complete the interrupted withdrawal using the resume-withdrawal command.

node ./gateway-cli.js resume-withdrawal

NOTE: Only one pending withdrawal is allowed per user.